Instructions for Authors

When submitting copy to Convergence, please adhere to the following style guidelines:

Titles in the text

  • Enclose in quotation marks titles of articles, essays, short stories, short poems, songs, chapters and sections of books and unpublished works such as dissertations.
  • Italicise titles of published works, films, television programmes, journals, multimedia products, plays, long poems, pamphlets, operas, classical works and the like. On their first reference in the text, film titles should be followed by director, country and year of release; television programmes should be identified by the channel on which they are/were broadcast and dates of transmission; CD-ROMs, computer and video games by the manufacturer (company or author).

Quoted material

  • Quotations of less than 40-50 words should run on within the text and should be indicated 'like this'.
  • Longer quotations should be separated from the text by a line break, indented and not enclosed in quotation marks.


  • Convergence uses SAGE reference style. References in the text should be presented in the Harvard system, i.e. the author’s name and year of publication in brackets, together with the page numbers, e.g. `As Hobson (1989: 22-3) has observed…’, or, in a more general reference: ‘Scott (1985) appears to be saying that…’.
  • Reference list. The references should be listed alphabetically in full at the end of the paper, typed double-spaced for ease of editing, in the following style:
    – Surname, X.X. (year) Title with Initial Caps: Subtitle with Initial Caps. Place: Publisher.
    – Surname, X. (year) 'Title of Chapter', in X. Surname and Y. Surname (eds) Title of Book, pp. xxx–xxx. Place: Publisher.
    – Surname, X.X and X.X. Surname (year) `Title of Article’, Name of Journal no.): xxx–xxx [page range].
    – Surname, X. (year) 'Title of Paper', paper presented at Name of Conference, City, Month of presentation.
    – Surname, X.X (year) 'Title of Article', Name of Journal no.), URL (consulted Month, Year): http://xxxx.xxxx.xx.xx./xxxx/xxxx
  • In multi-authored articles, the names of all authors should be given in the reference list. In the text, if there are more than two names, please give the first name and et al.
  • Dates follow the international standard notation, 8 February 2005. Decades are indicated in figures, eg 1990s. Numbers under ten should be spelt out in words unless quantities are being referred to.
  • A list of frequently used abbreviations and word spellings is available from the editors. Copy can be submitted in English or American spelling, but should be consistent within the article.

Photographs and Illustrative Material

Any photos or other illustrative material submitted with the manuscript should be clearly labelled with caption and/or figure number if appropriate. This can be submitted in electronic form, but if hard copy is sent, please clearly mark label it with the author's name and directions for its return (however, we cannot accept responsibility for such material).

The author must obtain any necessary permissions for the inclusion and reproduction of copyright material. A copyright proforma letter is available for authors to use.


If your paper is accepted for publication, you will be required to present all notes as endnotes, formatted manually without using the wordprocessing footnoting option. They should be placed at the end of the main text and before the bibliography.

Bedfordshire University

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